Frequency Spectrum Rules and Regulations
FCC Rules, Part 15.247
The FCC rules for the use of spread spectrum transmitters in the ISM bands with no user license are contained in Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (otherwise known as the FCC Rules), Part 15.247.
A summary of the April 1997 revision of the FCC rules 15.247 for spread spectrum devices using direct sequence is listed below:
CHAPTER I--FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
PART 15--RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES--Table of Contents
Subpart C--Intentional Radiators
Sec. 15.247 Operation within the bands 902-928 MHz, 2400-2483.5 MHz, and 5725-5850 MHz
(a) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum intentional radiators that comply with the following provisions:
(2) For direct sequence systems, the minimum 6 dB bandwidth shall be at least 500 kHz.
(b) The maximum peak output power of the transmitter shall not exceed 1 Watt. If transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6 dBi are used, the power shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi.
(3) Except as shown below, if transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6 dBi are used the peak output power from the intentional radiator shall be reduced below the above stated values by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi.
(i) Systems operating in the 2400-2483.5 MHz band that are used exclusively for fixed, point-to-point operations may employ transmitting antennas with directional gain greater than 6 dBi provided the maximum peak output power of the intentional radiator is reduced by 1 dB for every 3 dB that the directional gain of the antenna exceeds 6 dBi.
(ii) Systems operating in the 5725-5850 MHz band that are used exclusively for fixed, point-to-point operations may employ transmitting antennas with directional gain greater than 6 dBi without any corresponding reduction in transmitter peak output power.
(iii) Fixed, point-to-point operation, as used in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) and (b)(3)(ii) of this section, excludes the use of point-to-multipoint systems, omnidirectional applications, and multiple co-located intentional radiators transmitting the same information. The operator of>the spread spectrum intentional radiator or, if the equipment is professionally installed, the installer is responsible for ensuring that the system is used exclusively for fixed, point-to-point operations. The instruction manual furnished with the intentional radiator shall contain language in the installation instructions informing the operator and the installer of this responsibility.
(4) Systems operating under the provisions of this section shall be operated in a manner that ensures that the public is not exposed to radio frequency energy levels in excess of the Commission's guidelines. See ' 1.1307(b)(1) of this Chapter.
(c) In any 100 kHz bandwidth outside the frequency band in which the spread spectrum intentional radiator is operating, the radio frequency power that is produced by the intentional radiator shall be at least 20 dB below that in the 100 kHz bandwidth within the band that contains the highest level of the desired power, based on either an RF conducted or a radiated measurement. Attenuation below the general limits specified in Section 15.209(a) is not required. In addition, radiated emissions which fall in the restricted bands, as defined in Section 15.205(a), must also comply with the radiated emission limits specified in Section 15.209(a) (see Section 15.205(c)).
(d) For direct sequence systems, the peak power spectral density conducted from the intentional radiator to the antenna shall not be greater than 8 dBm in any 3 kHz band during any time interval of continuous transmission.
(e) The processing gain of a direct sequence system shall be at least 10 dB. The processing gain represents the improvement to the received signal-to-noise ratio, after filtering to the information bandwidth, from the spreading/despreading function. The processing gain may be determined using one of the following methods:
(1) As measured at the demodulated output of the receiver: the ratio in dB of the signal-to-noise ratio with the system spreading code turned off to the signal-to-noise ratio with the system spreading code turned on.
(2) As measured using the CW jamming margin method: a signal generator is stepped in 50 kHz increments across the pass band of the system, recording at each point the generator level required to produce the recommended Bit Error Rate (BER). This level is the jammer level. The output power of the intentional radiator is measured at the same point. The jammer to signal ratio (J/S) is then calculated, discarding the worst 20% of the J/S data points. The lowest remaining J/S ratio is used to calculate the processing gain, as follows: Gp = (S/N)o + Mj + Lsys, where Gp = processing gain of the system, (S/N)o = signal to noise ratio required for the chosen BER, Mj = J/S ratio, and Lsys = system losses. Note that total losses in a system, including intentional radiator and receiver, should be assumed to be no more than 2 dB.
FCC U-NII Regulatory Compliance
Regarding Stratum 20 and 100 Equipment and U-NII Compliance
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditons: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed tp provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manuals, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Modifications to this product not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void FCC approval and the user's right to operate the product.
The Stratum is intended for point-to-point operations over an unobstructed line-of-sight path.
This equipment is authorized for use by the FCC under the United States Code of Federal Regulations Title 47 Part 15 Subpart E - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices (UNII).
To comply with FCC rules for UNII devices:
1. The equipment must be installed in accordance with CFR Section 15.407 (a) (3) which states: "The operator of the U-NII device, or if the equipment is professionally installed, the installer, is responsible for ensuring that systems employing high-gain directional antennas are used exclusively for fixed, point-to-point operations."
2. The installer must ensure that the unit is properly installed in compliance with the FCC's guidelines for maximum permissible radio frequency exposure as outlined in CFR 47 Section 1.1307(b)(1), preventing excess exposure to all persons. The installed radiating device should be inaccessible to unauthorized personnel. The installed unit should be positioned to guarantee no direct continuous exposure to people with 5 feet of the antenna. During installation, the installer should use caution to avoid excess exposure to directed antenna radiation within 3 feet of the front of the antenna.
Regarding Stratum 20 and 100 Equipment and U-NII Compliance
3. The unit is normally provided with an integral flat panel antenna for both the "A" end (5.3 GHz transmitter) and the "B" end (5.775 GHz transmitter) of the point-to-point link. For extended range applications, the unit at the "B" end may be provided with a connection for an external parabolic antenna instead of an integral flat panel antenna. When deployed with an external antenna, the unit must be professionally installed to comply with CFR 47 Section 15.203. Only antennas with gain less than 40 dBi are authorized for use with the "B" unit. The antenna gain improvement at the "B" end of the link aids both directions of the link.
FCC Rules, Part 101
The FCC rules for the use of microwave transmitters in the bands above 3 GHz for common carriers and private operational fixed users are contained in Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (otherwise known as the FCC Rules), Part 101. Part 101 consolidates the old Part 21 and Part 94 rules for the bands above 3 GHz into one set of rules for both common carriers and private operational fixed users. All frequency bands under Part 101 are available for both types of user.
Industry Canada LeLan Regulatory Compliance
Regarding Stratum 20 and 100 Equipment and LeLan Compliance
This device complies with Industry Canada specification RSS-210 for "Low Power License-Exempt Radio Communication Devices," Section 6.2.2 (o1), "Local Area Network Devices."
The Stratum is designed for point-to-point communications and operates within the bands 5250-5350 MHz and 5725-5825 MHz.
Users should take note that high-power radars are allocated as primary>users (meaning they have priority) of 5250-5350 MHz and 5650-5850 MHz and these radars could cause interference and/or damage to LELAN devices.
Users should also take note of the maximum antenna gain permitted to comply with restrictions for those bands:
"The maximum transmitter power shall not exceed 250 mW or 11 + 10 Log B dBm, whichever power is less. The power spectral density shall not exceed 11 dBm in any 1.0 MHz band. The maximum EIRP shall not exceed 1.0 watt or 17 + 10 Log B dBm, whichever power is less. B is the 99% power bandwidth in MHz."
The Stratum ODU-A transmits between 5250-5350 MHz. The transmit power is +1 dBm. The integral flat panel antenna is 26 dBi. The EIRP is 27 dBm and complies with the requirement above.
"Fixed point-to-point devices for this band are permitted up to 200 watts EIRP by employing higher gain antennas, but not higher transmitter output powers. Point-to-point multipoint systems, omni-directional applications and multiple co-located transmitters transmitting the same information are prohibited under this high EIRP category."
The Stratum ODU-B transmits between 5725-5825 MHz. The transmit power is +1 dBm. The integral flat panel antenna gain is 26 dBi. The EIRP is 27 dBm and complies with the requirement above.
The Stratum ODU-B-EXT transmits between 5725-5825 MHz. The transmit power is +1 dBm. External parabolic antennas with gain up to 52 dBi will comply with the requirement above.